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  • 入夏以來,我國大部地區高溫天氣不斷重現……


    在“蒸、煮、烘、烤”的三伏天,一旦離開空調、風扇、冷飲,想必小伙伴們就會叫苦不迭吧?

    然而,古代沒有電力,夏季人工制冷成了“大問題”。古人又會通過哪些智慧,來巧妙消暑呢?


    一、????器具篇????



    1、自動風扇


    古時候,對于平民百姓,無非涼茶、蒲扇、草席子這“避暑三件套”,實在熱得不行就脫了衣服,放飛自我了。

    不過對于富貴人家,則有自動風扇車

    這件神器據稱漢朝時就發明了,一度用于軍事用途。

    后來“軍工轉民用”,接上水車,成了全自動消暑神器。

    2、冰箱


    古代也有冰箱。

    春秋時期就出現了青銅制的冰鑒


    冰鑒共里外兩層,外層放冰,里層就可以用來冰鎮瓜果、飲品;更為奇妙的是,冰鑒外殼上開幾個孔,往外排冷氣,就成為“冰箱空調一體機”。

    到了明清時期,大戶人家制作冰鑒的材質變成了黃花梨和紅木。

    去年熱播的《延禧攻略》里,就提到過清朝皇宮所用的冰鑒。在歷史上,也是確有其物的。

    那么,冰鑒中的冰從何而來?


    中國古代很早就有了化學制冰的能力。

    大約在唐朝末期,工匠們在生產火藥時開采了大量硝石。

    他們無意中發現,硝石溶于水時會吸收大量的熱,能使周圍的水降溫,直至結冰。


    于是一些能工巧匠便開始利用硝石制冰。

    工匠們將水放入罐內,取一個更大的容器,在容器內放水,然后將罐子放在容器內,并不斷地在容器中加入硝石,結果罐內的水結成了冰。

    硝石是一種白色味苦的晶體,顏色如霜。

    它的化學名稱叫硝酸鈣,它溶解于水時會吸收大量熱量,使周圍溫度降低以致結成冰。

    有了這種技術,就大大促進了古代制冷市場的繁榮。


    不過,化學制冰的溫度通常難以控制,大量制冰也不甚現實。

    因此,古代大戶人家會在嚴冬時收集冰塊儲存在地底深處的地窖中,待夏天的時候拿出來。


    據《周禮》記載,當時周王室為保證夏天有冰塊使用,專門成立了相應的機構管理“冰政”,負責人稱“凌人”。此部門的“編制”不小,共有80名“職工”。

    每年大寒季節,工人就開始鑿冰儲藏,因為這時的冰塊最堅硬,不易融化。

    管理藏冰事務的官吏監督奴隸、農民到水質好的地方鑿采,藏到預先準備好的冰窖里。


    冰窖一般建在陰涼的地方,深入地下。

    凌人用新鮮稻草跟蘆席鋪墊,把冰放到上面之后就覆蓋稻糠、樹葉等隔溫材料,然后密封窖口,待來年享用。

    以這種儲存方式,每年大概會有三分之二的藏冰會融化,所以古人常常將藏冰量提高到所需使用冰量的三倍。


    3、空調房與“深井冰”


    漢代,皇宮里設有冬夏兩用的“空調房”,冬季用房叫“溫調殿”,夏季用房叫“清涼殿”。

    清涼殿內有多重降溫裝置———以石頭為床,用玉晶盤裝冰塊,還有仆人站在一旁對著扇扇子。


    據古籍記載,清涼殿內盛夏時仍清涼無比,如同含霜一般。

    而漢武帝劉徹身邊的紅人,可以得到“常臥延清之室”的特權。


    而在民間,人們也在巧妙尋求溫差。譬如,一些人家的地上,會有這么一個洞——

    由于地底相對恒溫,冬暖夏涼,所以當屋外空氣通過深埋地低的管道傳輸,再從洞口流出,夏天就會排出一些“冷氣”。

    據說,這在曹操筑鄴城的時候就已經廣泛應用。堪稱傳說中的“深井冰”!


    更高端的空調房玩法叫做“自雨亭”。

    顧名思義,通過不停把水澆到屋頂模擬下雨,利用水循環帶走熱量。而這一切,都是自動的。

    據說,這種設計在唐朝較為流行。小小劇透下,最近熱播的《長安十二時辰》中,“自雨亭”將成為解開迷局的一件重要“物證”。


    二、????冷飲篇????



    許多小伙伴都說,沒有什么酷熱是一杯冰鎮肥宅快樂水所不能解決的,如果有,那就來兩杯!


    在古代,雖然沒有冰可樂,卻也有種類豐富的冷飲。

    上文提到,在唐代,人們學會了化學制冰,各類消暑冰飲隨之得到豐富。

    人們在大木桶里放上水,用化學手法制冰,同時將裝有蔗糖、牛奶等原料的小鐵盒放于木桶之中,制作消暑食物。


    唐代的《酉陽雜俎》中記載了如何制作早期“冰激凌”——流質的“酪飲”與“冰酪”,前者是飲料,后者則加有水果、奶制品等佐料。

    在宋朝,市民經濟發展使冷飲類型更為多樣。

    據記載,在開封府有三家大型冷飲店,一家叫“曹家從食”(從食即主食,如包子、饅頭、水餃、餛飩、餡餅之類,均為從食),位于朱雀門外;另外兩家位于舊宋門外,店名失考。

    三家店都賣冰雪、涼漿、甘草湯、藥木瓜、水木瓜、涼水荔枝膏等諸如此類的冷飲。

    “冰雪”是宋朝的冰淇淋,以蔗糖水為底,輔以各種水果、奶制品,甘甜可口,連皇帝都忍不住每日貪吃,堪稱宋朝版“哈根達斯”。


    “涼漿”是冰鎮的發酵米湯;“甘草湯”是冰鎮甘草水。


    “藥木瓜”是用蜂蜜和好幾種中藥材把木瓜腌制一番,再放入滾水里煮到發白,搗成泥,然后和冰水混合均勻的清涼飲料;“水木瓜”比較簡單,木瓜削皮,去瓤,只留下果肉,切成小方塊,泡到冰水里面就成了。


    “涼水荔枝膏”和荔枝基本上沒關系,主要是用烏梅熬成果膠,然后再把果膠融入冰水。

    圖為宋人制作涼漿


    貪食冷飲的不僅有你,古代的帝王也是如此。《宋史》就記載了南宋孝宗和禮部侍郎施師點的一段對話。

    宋孝宗說:“朕前飲冰水過多,忽暴下,幸即復。”意思是我前幾天吃冷飲吃得太多,搞得拉肚子,幸好現在不拉了。

    施師點說:“你是國家最高統治者,一舉一動都關系到江山社稷和百姓生活,千萬不能再憑自己喜好亂吃冷飲了。”宋孝宗“深然之”。


    到了清代,制冰、藏冰業的發達已經到了“宴客之筵必有四冰果,以冰拌食”的程度。

    《燕京歲時記》還說,清廷在三伏天會給各級官吏廣泛賜冰,由于數量很多,須工部頒給“冰票”,讓各級官吏自行領取。

    清代小販使用的制冰飲機


    當然,中醫講求“藥食同源”,在物理降溫之余,更相信一些食物在夏季有“清熱解毒”的奇效。

    譬如,從宋代開始,消暑神器綠豆湯逐漸流行;此外還有甘草湯、蓮子湯等,據說飲用后能夠養心益腎。中醫理論稱:心境平和,自然涼。

    綠豆湯這種東西,想必直到今天,媽媽還是會煮給你吃吧?

    空調、冷飲雖然能降溫消暑;但也要適度,防止患上“空調病”,感冒甚至消化道疾病。

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